Midwives have been known by a variety of different names in America and abroad: nurse-midwives, granny-midwives, and lay-midwives. Men were typically excluded from childbirth in the late 1800's and early 1900's as it was viewed as improper and immodest for them to be present in the birthing room, or, the "laying-in" room. As such, midwives were present in the laying-in room to help women give birth, only summoning a physician, who was generally male, if the birth was going to be difficult. Montgomery County is fortunate enough to have some preserved midwives' certificates. These certificates were awarded to women through the Montgomery County Probate Judge after having passed a midwifery examination. View the Midwives' Certificates (PDF).